Workstation is a computer used for tasks such as programming, engineering, and design. IANA has set aside three address ranges for use by private or non-Internet connected networks. It is a firewall technology that monitors the state of active connections and uses this information to determine which network packets to allow through the firewall. Source: NIST SP 800-161 (Adapted from ISO/IEC 15288, NIST SP 800-53 Rev. A Secure Shell (SSH) is also known as Secure Socket Shell. Entrapment is the deliberate planting of flaws in an information system to detect attempted penetrations. A cookie is a small packet of information which your computer’s browser stores when you visit a web server. The purpose is to move data between computers that use a protocol not supported by the network connecting them. Plaintext is the most portable format and is supported by almost every application. Any access that violates the stated security policy. 1). Identity and Access Management is the security discipline that enables the right individuals to access the right resources at the right times for the right reasons. Security Procesures is a set of detailed instructions, configurations and recommendations to implement company's security policies. Fast Ethernet, RS232, and ATM are protocols with physical layer components. Intrusion Detection System is a security service that monitors and analyzes network or system events for the purpose of finding, and providing real-time or near real-time warning of, attempts to access system resources in an unauthorized manner. Timely, reliable access to data and information services for authorized users. Applications Now Available for City Colleges of Chicagoâs New Cyber Security â¦ A polymorphic type is one whose operations can also be applied to values of some other type. Response Team The incident response team is a team that meets regularly to review status reports, authorize specific remedies, and manage the response process. An unauthorized person gains access to a network and stays there undetected for a long period of time, with an intention to steal data rather than to cause direct damage to the network. Typically developers will create a set of regression tests that are executed before a new version of a software is released. An attack is a malicious intent to gain unauthorized access to a system , or compromise system integrity or confidentiality. A key helps convert plain text to cipher text and vice-versa. A network firewall is a device that controls traffic to and from a network. A system that has more than one network interface card must have IP forwarding turned on in order for the system to be able to act as a router. Least Privilege is the security principle of allowing users the least amount of permissions necessary to perform their intended function. A field device is an equipment that is connected to the field side on an ICS. Promiscuous mode allows a network device to intercept and read each network packet. Such identification enables interaction with representations of the resource over a network (such as the World Wide Web) using specific protocols. The sum of the mean times in each hop indicates the total time spent to establish the connection. Security Control Inheritance is a situation in which an information system or application receives protection from security controls (or portions of security controls) that are developed, implemented, assessed, authorized, and monitored by entities other than those responsible for the system or application; entities either internal or external to the organization where the system or application resides. An intranet is a organisation's private network. Administrative safeguards focus on internal organization, policies and procedures, and the maintenance of security managers which are in place to protect sensitive patient information. The acronym is pronounced “sim” with a silent e. Signals intelligence- intelligence gathering by interception of signals, whether communications are from people or from electronic signals not directly used in communication. A good hash function makes it hard to find two strings that would produce the same hash value. The process of identifying the risks to system security and determining the probability of occurrence, the resulting impact, and the additional safeguards that mitigate this impact. A honeypot is a trap set to detect, deflect, or in some manner counteract attempts at unauthorized use of information systems. Due Diligence is the process of conducting a thorough and detailed investigation, to verify the truthfulness of the information provided in the statements for analysis and review before committing to a transaction. It usually connects via a router. The advanced persistent threat: (i) pursues its objectives repeatedly over an extended period of time; (ii) adapts to defenders’ efforts to resist it; and (iii) is determined to maintain the level of interaction needed to execute its objectives. to 192.168.255.255 (192.168/16 prefix). The control centre is an equipment structure from which a process is measured, controlled, and/or monitored. Information Sharing and Analysis Centers is a nonprofit org that provides a central resource for gathering information on cyber threats to critical infrastructure. A Disaster Recovery Plan (DRP) prescribes steps required to carry on the business as usual in the event of a disaster. For example, in software, installation process abides by the vendor license agreement. It can also be used to help a human cracker obtain unauthorized access to resources. A VPN is created by establishing a virtual point-to-point connection through the use of dedicated connections, virtual tunneling protocols, or traffic encryption. This protocol defines how messages are formatted and transmitted on the Internet and what actions web servers and browsers should take in response to various commands. Protect the confidentiality of data. Permissions is the authorized actions that a subject can perform with an object (that is read, write, modify or delete). It is used to prevent inference attacks. Applications use the registry API to retrieve, modify, or delete registry data. Legion is a computer software system. MD5 is currently a standard, Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) Request for Comments (RFC) 1321. A program infector is a piece of malware (or virus) that attaches itself to existing program files. It is a network node that is assigned a network layer host address. With YARA you can create descriptions of malware families (or whatever you want to describe) based on textual or binary patterns. A spoofing is the act of falsifying data to gain an illegitimate advantage. OSINT (Open source threat intelligence) is data collected from publicly available Web sources such as social media, blogs, news publications, and forums. This type of virus can be spread beyond one's system as soon as the infected file or program is passed to another computer. EPP stands for endpoint protection platform. Information Warfare (IW) is primarily a United States Military concept that involves the use and management of information and communication technology in pursuit of a competitive advantage over an opponent. A field site is a subsystem that is identified by physical, geographical, or logical segmentation within the ICS. Access rights are permissions that are granted to a user, or an application, to view, modify or delete files in the network. A successful Denial of Service attack can cripple any entity that relies on its online presence by rendering their site virtually useless. Unix was designed to be a small, flexible system used exclusively by programmers. Duplicate digital evidence is a duplicate that an accurate digital reproduction of all data objects contained on the original physical item and associated media. An access point is a computer networking device which allows a Wi-Fi compliant device to connect to a wired network wirelessly. People are lured into sharing user names, passwords, account information or credit card numbers, usually by an official-looking message that urges them to act immediately. Multiplexing is a technique by which multiple data streams are combined into one signal over a shared medium. A security relevant change is any change to a system’s configuration, environment, information content, functionality, or users which has the potential to change the risk imposed upon its continued operations. Dividing an Ethernet into multiple segments is one of the most common ways of increasing available bandwidth on the LAN. XMPP is an open protocol standard. XML is similar to HTML, XML uses tags to markup a document, allowing the browser to interpret the tags and display them on a page. If the filtering implementation does not enforce a minimum fragment size, a disallowed packet might be passed because it didn't hit a match in the filter. A programmable logic controller (PLC), or programmable controller is an industrial digital computer which has been ruggedised and adapted for the control of manufacturing processes, such as assembly lines, or robotic devices, or any activity that requires high reliability control and ease of programming and process fault diagnosis. An adversary that possesses sophisticated levels of expertise and significant resources which allow it to create opportunities to achieve its objectives by using multiple attack vectors (e.g., cyber, physical, and deception). A leased circuit is a communications link between two locations used exclusively by one organization. Controlling jitter is critical for creating a good online experience. An individual uses existing codes to hack into a system, lacking the expertise to write their own. Hashing is a a system of generating string values with the help of algorithms to maintain data integrity and accuracy. A network host may offer information resources, services, and applications to users or other nodes on the network. The netmask screen out the network part of an IP address so that only the host computer part of the address remains. A reverse proxy is a device or service that is placed between a client and a server in a network. Cyber Observables is " a measurable event or stateful property in the cyber domain". Some adware which are designed to be malicious act at a speed and frequency that slows down the system and ties up resources. When victims connect to the wireless network, a hacker can launch a spying attack on their transactions on the Internet, or just ask for credit card information in the standard pay-for-access deal. Brute Force is a computing method that relies on strong algorithms and computing techniques to find the ultimate solution to a given issue. Disturbance is an undesired change in a variable being applied to a system that tends to adversely affect the value of a controlled variable. A Ymodem is a file-transfer protocol developed by Chuck Forsburg, that is similar to the enhanced 1K version of Xmodem. Keylogged information can be saved as a file and distributed across networks. Vishing is the act of collecting private information from customers by fooling them into divulging confidential personal and financial information. The process of monitoring the events occurring in a computer system or network, analyzing them for signs of possible incidents, and attempting to stop detected possible incidents. A Block Cipher algorithm is a family of functions and their inverses parameterized by a cryptographic key in which the function map bit strings of a fixed length to bit strings of the same length. Permutation is a process where the letters within a text are kept the same, but the position changes to scramble the message. The public key is associated with an owner and may be made public. Intrusion Prevention System is a system that can detect an intrusive activity and can also attempt to stop the activity, ideally before it reaches its targets. In Strong Star Property, a user cannot write data to higher or lower classifications levels than their own. SET ensures that all parties (customers, merchant, and bank) are authenticated using digital signatures, encryption protects the message and provides integrity, and provides end-to-end security for credit card transactions online. Flooding is an attack that attempts to cause a failure in a system by providing more input than the system can process properly. A nomenclature and dictionary of security-related software flaws. Unauthorized user who attempts to or gains access to an information system. The exposure of proprietary, sensitive, or classified information through either data theft or data leakage. A polymorphic virus is a virus that will change its digital footprint every time it replicates. VCDB is a community data initiative to catalog security incidents in the public domain using the VERIS framework. This two-factor authentication provides additional security by requiring an attacker to both guess the user's password and steal the smart card. Digital evidence is electronic information stored or transferred in digital form. Also called as Castle approach, it is based on the principle that in the event of an attack, even if one layer fails to protect the information resource other layers can offer defense against the attack. An exploit code is a program that allows attackers to automatically break into a system. The Reverse Lookup is a technique that uses the IP (Internet Protocol) address to find a domain name. Conflict of interest Escalation is a present procedure for escalating a security incident if any members of the support or security teams are suspect. An information system in which at least one security objective (i.e., confidentiality, integrity, or availability) is assigned a potential impact value of high. The WHOIS protocol is documented in RFC 3912. In Simple Integrity Property, a user cannot write data to a higher integrity level than their own. HTTPS is very important over insecure networks (such as public WiFi), as anyone on the same local network can discover sensitive information not protected by HTTPS. It originated in the initial network implementation in which it complemented the Internet Protocol (IP). A profile includes the user's password, name and what information/systems they are allowed or denied access to. Automated Email Ingest feature allows users to create structured, actionable threat intelligence with ease from emails originating from trusted sources and sharing partners or from suspected spearphishing emails. An attack in which an attacker takes over a domain by first blocking access to the domain's DNS server and then putting his own server up in its place. A security perimeter is a well-defined boundary within which security controls are enforced. Token-based Access Control is an authentication method that offers additional security. A Null session is also known as Anonymous Logon. A secret seed is a secret value used to initialize a pseudorandom number generator. A meeting with international law experts at the Munich Security Conference recently highlighted the need for greater norms development in cyberspace. Encryption is a data security technique, which uses an algorithm to maintain data integrity by converting plain data into a secret code. Biometrics is a type of security system, which uses unique physiological characteristics of a person such as fingerprints, DNA, hair for identification purposes. A test methodology that assumes no knowledge of the internal structure and implementation detail of the assessment object. Unauthorized Access is when a person gains logical or physical access without permission to a network, system, application, data, or other resource. It includes viruses, Trojans, worms, time bombs, logic bombs, or anything else intended to cause damage upon the execution of the payload. Intelligent Electronic Device refers to any device incorporating one or more processors with the capability to receive or send data/control from or to an external source (e.g., electronic multifunction meters, digital relays, controllers). Weakness in an information system, system security procedures, internal controls, or implementation that could be exploited or triggered by a threat source. Manipulated variable is a process that is intended to regulate some condition, a quantity or a condition that the control alters to initiate a change in the value of the regulated condition. STIX is a language for having a standardized communication for the representation of cyberthreat information. A Business Impact Analysis is the process of evaluating and identifying risks and threats that a business might face in the event of an accident, disaster, or an emergency. A party who acts with malicious intent to compromise an information system. XSS enables attackers to inject client-side scripts into web pages viewed by other users. NIPS (network intrusion prevention system) examines network traffic flows to detect and prevent vulnerability exploits. OPNET and NetSim are commonly used tools for simulation network intrusion detection systems. 2 (NIST SP 800-61). Password Authentication Protocol (PAP) is a password-based authentication protocol used by Point to Point Protocol (PTP) to validate users. a schema). Internet identity (IID) is a social identity that an Internet user creates on online communities or websites. It transmits commands to the motor and receives feedback from the servo motor resolver or encoder. 1). The payload is the part of the malware program that actually executes its designed task. This is used by network administrators to diagnose network problems, but also by crackers who are trying to eavesdrop on network traffic for confidential information. Known social networking websites include Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, MySpace and Blogspot. Using a program to remotely determine which ports on a system are open (e.g., whether the systems allow connections through those ports). IP Spoofing is also known as IP address forgery or a host file hijack. A smart card is an electronic badge that includes a magnetic strip or chip that can record and replay a set key. A hardwired key is a permanently installed key. A blended threat is a computer network attack that tries to maximize the severity of damage by combining various attack methods. Parents sometimes use such software to prevent children from visiting all but certain websites. These are commonly used to connect segments of a LAN. SCADA is a generic name for a computerized system that is capable of gathering and processing data and applying operational controls over long distances. Separation of duties (SoD) is also known as segregation of duties. Threat Intelligence Information about specific impending attacks against the organization and is initially consumed by higher level security. Businesses turn to managed security services providers to alleviate the pressures they face daily related to information security such as targeted malware, customer data theft, skills shortages and resource constraints. IP forwarding is also known as Internet routing. In SYN scanning, the hostile client or attacker attempts to set up a TCP/IP connection with a server at every possible port. Security Fault Analysis is an assessment, usually performed on information system hardware, to determine the security properties of a device when hardware fault is encountered. A cracker, also known as a black hat hacker, is an individual with extensive computer knowledge whose purpose is to breach or bypass internet security or gain access to software without paying royalties. The Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) is one of the key Internet protocols and is used by network devices such as routers to generate error messages to the source IP address when network problems prevent delivery of IP packets. Stealthing is a term that refers to approaches used by malicious code to conceal its presence on the infected system. A false positive is normal behavior that is marked as ‘different’, or possibly malicious. Glossary of cyber security terms The technical terms in this glossary are not comprehensive, they are intended only as a basic aid to understanding the pages on this website. You can add and remove sites from the permitted list. The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) is a large open international community of network designers, operators, vendors, and researchers who are concerned with the evolution of the Internet architecture and its smooth operations. It also employs methods to calculate the risk impact and eliminate the impact. to 172.31.255.255 (172.16/12 prefix) 192.168. . A system or application output file, database, document, or Web page are also considered data assets. Next Generation Firewall is an integrated network platform that combines a traditional firewall with other network device filtering functionalities such as an application firewall using in speed integrated network platform that performs deep inspection of traffic and blocking of attacks. Engagement by the CoP will focus on trends, risks, threats, impacts, controls and good practices associated with all aspects of cybersecurity â¦ Root is also known as the super user. The attacker is assumed to know the actual password frequency distribution. It allows the user to display TCP/IP and other packets being transmitted or received over a network. A protocol is a set of rules to implement and control communications and associations between systems. An attack technique that attempts to subvert the relationship between a webpage and its supporting database, typically in order to trick the database into executing malicious code. These facilities include offices and data processing centers. Security Control Assessment is the testing and/or evaluation of the management, operational, and technical security controls in an information system to determine the extent to which the controls are implemented correctly, and producing the desired outcome with respect to meeting the security requirements. The stack is also called a pushdown stack or first-in last-out circuit. For example, a tunnel may encapsulate a transport protocol (such as TCP), in a network layer protocol (such as IP). The security awareness month started with a joint effort by the National Cyber Security â¦ Race Condition is the behavior of an electronic, software, or other system where the output is dependent on the sequence or timing of other uncontrollable events. Instead, you are given anonymous or guest access. [Wikipedia]. Photo eye is a light sensitive sensor utilizing photoelectric control that converts a light signal into an electrical signal, ultimately producing a binary signal based on an interruption of a light beam. MSSP (managed security service provider) is an outsourced network security services. The typical uses include power transmission and distribution and pipeline systems. This helps to maintain security and recover any lost data. Adware is a type of software that displays or downloads unwanted advertisements on your system. Audit trail is a documented record of events or transactions. A session key is a key that is temporary. An alert situation is when the interruption in an enterprise is not resolved even after the competition of the threshold stage, an alert situation requires the enterprise to start escalation procedure. A security attribute is also an abstraction representing the basic properties or characteristics of an entity with respect to safeguarding information; typically associated with internal data structures (e.g., records, buffers, files) within the information system. Preserving authorized restrictions on information access and disclosure, including means for protecting personal privacy and proprietary information. Monoculture is the case where a large number of users run the same software, and are vulnerable to the same attacks. A policy that directs all personnel to clear their desks at the end of each working day, and file everything appropriately. Any circumstance or event with the potential to adversely impact organizational operations, (including mission, functions, image, or reputation), organizational assets, individuals, other organizations, or the Nation through an information system via unauthorized access, destruction, disclosure, modification of information, and/or denial of service. A process controller is a proprietary computer system, typically rack-mounted, that processes sensor input, executes control algorithms, and computes actuator outputs. An access control list (ACL) is a list of permissions attached to an object in a computer file. A Servo Valve is an actuated valve whose position is controlled using a servo actuator. VPN enables users to send and receive data across shared or public networks as if their computing devices were directly connected to the private network. A Digital Signature is an electronic code that guarantees the authenticity of the sender of information as who he claims to be. Navigation items has finished. Authorities have a harder time tracing criminals when they go through zombie computers. However, if a UDP packet is sent to a port that is not open, the system will respond with an ICMP port unreachable message. This information is then transmitted by a remote port when a connection is initiated. Typically, ISPs provide email service and homepage storage in addition to internet access. An analog is a transmission signal that varies in signal strength (amplitude) or frequency (time). When any file (such as e-mail message, HTML file, Graphics Interchange Format file) is sent from one place to another, the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) layer of TCP/IP divides the file into smaller chunks ideal for routing. An application layer is an abstraction layer that specifies the shared protocols and interface methods used by hosts in a communications network. Prevent. An operating system (OS) is a software that manages computer hardware and software resources to support the computer's basic functions. Gateways act as an entrance to another network. Unicast is any communication between a single sender and a single receiver over a network. An incremental backup provides a backup of only those files that have changed, modified, or are new since the last backup. 45 Main Cyber Security Terms Everyone Must Know. Any violations of the said rules attract punitive actions from the regulatory bodies. A windowing system doesn't just manage the windows but also other forms of graphical user interface entities. A Threat Vector is a methodology that a threat uses to get to the target. TCP/IP stack fingerprinting is the passive collection of configuration attributes from a remote device during standard layer 4 network communications. In ThreatConnect, you can easily mark an indicator as a ‘false positive’ when viewing the details for that indicator. RPC scans determine which RPC services are running on a machine. An entity with authorized access (i.e., within the security) that has the potential to harm an information system through destruction, disclosure, modification of data, and/or denial of service. Ethernet uses BUS topology to support data transfers and the CSMA/CD system to process requests at the same time. Business Continuity Management refers to preparing for and maintaining continued business operations following disruption or crisis. A discrete process is a type of process where a specified quantity of material moves as a unit between work stations and each unit maintains its unique identity. CYBER SECURITY COMMITTEE: TERMS OF REFERENCE (approved 22 January 2019) 1. GitHub is a a web based graphical interface for website and mobile collaboration. is the common name for the Triple Data Encryption Algorithm (TDEA or Triple DEA) symmetric-key block cipher, which applies the Data Encryption Standard (DES) cipher algorithm three times to each data block. Every organization has its own rules governing data retention within the organization. The unauthorized transfer of information from an information system. Following a successful exploit, the attacker can disable the target application. Digital signatures use the private key information of the sender and cannot be imitated or forged, easily. TERMS OF REFERENCE FOR THE NATIONAL CYBERSECURITY ADVISORY COUNCIL 1 BACKGROUND 1.1 The National Cybersecurity Policy Framework (NCPF) makes provision for the establishment of the â¦ Critical Infrastructure is the fundamental system of an organization that is important for its survival. Supervisory Control is used to imply that the output of a controller or computer program is used as input to other controllers. Ethernet is the most popular Local Area Network (LAN) technology that specifies cabling and signalling system for home or organization networks. Access type is used to specify attributes. A node or stopping point can be either a gateway node or a host (end-point) node. The chain of evidence shows who obtained the evidence, where the evidence came from, also who secured, had control and possession of the evidence. It open to harmful intruders social Engineering is an automated program that actually executes its designed Task of. Generally displayed using a cryptographic key that is used for the security.... The physcological method to deceive someone for the supply of a problem is a present procedure for escalating security... Individual, group, or to verify access authorization information across the Internet ad... 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